The information XPS provides about surface layers or thin film structures is important for many industrial and research applications where surface or thin film composition plays a critical role in performance including: nanomaterials, photovoltaics, catalysis, corrosion, adhesion, electronic devices and packaging, magnetic media, display technology, surface treatments, and thin film coatings used for numerous applications.
XPS is typically accomplished by exciting a samples surface with mono-energetic Al kα or Cr kα x-rays (HAXPES) causing photoelectrons to be emitted from the sample surface. An electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy of the emitted photoelectrons. From the binding energy and intensity of a photoelectron peak, the elemental identity, chemical state, and quantity of a detected element can be determined.
- PHI Genesis – XPS and HAXPES combined in an automated multi-technology platform